Major Types of Data

Major Types of Data
Observations about qualitative variables are typically made in words but are possibly coded into numbers later on for purposes of data processing. Observations about quantitative variables, in contrast, are numerical at the outset. Anyone who works with numbers, therefore, must be very clear about what, if anything, is measured by them. Continue reading Major Types of Data

Errors in Survey Data

Errors in Survey Data
All survey data are subject to error; errors can arise from innumerable, often unexpected, sources. Errors can be generated during the planning stage of a survey, more errors can be created during the later stages of data recording and processing. Indeed, we cannot list all the ways in which surveys can go wrong. It is possible, however, to raise our awareness of the problem by focusing on two broad categories of error, random error and systematic error (or bias). Continue reading Errors in Survey Data